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A powerful PHP Dependency Injection library / IoC Container.

Basic Usage

Create A Container

Just new an instance.

use Windwalker\DI\Container;

$container = new Container();

Now we can store objects into it.

use Windwalker\DI\Container;

$input = new Input();

$container->set('input', $input);

$input = $container->get('input');

Lazy Loading

Sometimes we will hope not to create object instantly, we can use callback to create object.

// Set a closure into it
$container->set('input', fn (Container $container) => new Input());

// Will call this closure when we get it
$input = $container->get('input');

// Always get new object.
$input !== $container->get('input');

Shared Object (Singleton)

If we use set() method to set this callback, then every time we try to get it, Container will return a new object.

Use share('foo', $object) to make an object singleton, we'll always get the same instance.

use Windwalker\DI\Container;

// Share a closure
$container->share('input', fn (Container $container) => new Input());

// Which is same as:
$container->set('input', fn (Container $container) => new Input(), Container::SHARED);

// We will always get same instance
$input = $container->get('input');

// The second argument of get() can force create new instance
$newInput = $container->get('input', true);

Protect Object

Use protect() to prevent others override your important object.

    fn (Container $container) => new Input(),

// We can still get this object
$input = $container->get('input');

// Trying to override this key, will throw OutOfBoundsException
$container->set('input', $otherInput);


Set an alias to service ID that you can use alias to get service:

$container->share('system.application', $app)
    ->alias('app', 'system.application');

// Same as system.application
$app = $container->get('app');

Set alias by class name:

    ->alias(MainApp::class, SystemApp::class);

// Same as `SystemApp::class`
$app = $container->get(MainApp::class);

Creating Objects

New Instance

Container can help us create object and automatic inject required arguments to constructor.

use Windwalker\IO\Input;
use Windwalker\Structure\Structure;

// Prepare dependencies into container
$container->share(Input::class, $input);
$container->share(Collection::class, $config);

// Define a class
class MyClass
    public function __construct(public Input $input, public Collection $config)

// And create it.
$myObject = $container->newInstance(MyClass::class);

// Now dependencies will be automatic injected
$myObject->input; // Input
$myObject->config; // Collection


If you try to create an object with dependencies which is not set in container, container will throw exception.

class MyCar
    public function __construct(public Wheel $wheel, public Light $light)

// @throw DefinitionResolveException

You can add autowire flag to options, the dependency object will auto create and inject it.

$car = $container->newInstance(MyCar::class, [], Container::AUTO_WIRE);

Create Object

Create object will new an instance instantly and set this class into container, we can get new instance everytime when we get it by class name.

$sakura = $container->createObject(Sakura::class);

// Now we can get this class with new instance from container
$sakura !== $container->get(Sakura::class);

Use createSharedObject() to set object as singleton.

// Now this object is singleton 
$katana = $container->createSharedObject(Katana::class);

$katana === $container->get(Katana::class); // Same

Create with Custom Arguments

If we have some constructor arguments without class hint, container will send the default value to constructor. We can override this un-hinted arguments:

This is a constructor without default value and class hinted.

class AnotherClass
    public function _construct(ModelInterface $model, $config)
        $bar = $config['foo']

// Let's create this object with custom arguments:
$container->newInstance(AnotherClass::class, ['config' => ['foo' => 'bar']]);

You can set multiple level arguments:

use Windwalker\Model\ModelInterface;

// ... AnotherClass

$config = [
    'config' => ['foo' => 'bar'],
    'Windwalker\Model\ModelInterface' => [
        'options' => $options,
        'db' => DatabaseFactory::getDbo()

$container->newInstance(AnotherClass::class, $config);

Prepare Object

We can set a class as prepared, then it will be created when we really need it:


// If we get MyClass, this class will be created.
$myObject = $container->get(MyClass::class);

Add second argument if you want to configure something after object created:

$container->prepareObject(MyClass::class, function (MyClass $myClass, Container $container) {
    $myClass->debug = true;
    return $myClass;

We can also prepare a shared object:


// This object will be singleton
$container->prepareSharedObject(MyClass::class[, extending]);

Prepare Creating Arguments

We can prepare some named arguments which will be injected to constructor when object creating.

// Set class meta
    ->setArgumemt('config', $config)
    ->setArgument('db', $db);

// ...

$object = $container->newInstance(MyModel::class);

Or just created it instantly:

    ->setArgumemt('config', $config)
    ->setArgument('db', $db)

Binding Classes

Sometimes when we are creating object, we may want to inject particular class which wer want, and different from origin dependencies.

For example: Here is a class which dependent to ModelInterface, we can bind a subclass to container then container will use MyModel class to be an instance of ModelInterface and inject it to MyClass.

use Windwalker\Model\ModelInterface;
use Windwalker\Data\Collection;

class MyClass
    public function __construct(public ModelInterface $model, public Collection $config)

class MyModel implements ModelInterface

// Bind MyModel as ModelInterface
$container->share(ModelInterface::class, fn () => new MyModel());

$myObject = $container->createObject(MyClass::class);

$myObject->model; // MyModel

Use bind() to quickly bind a class without callback, container will use newInstance() to create it when needed.

$container->bind(ModelInterface::class, MyModel::class);

// `MyModel` will auto created because we bind it to `ModelInterface`

Use bindShared() to bind a class as singleton:

$container->bindShared(ModelInterface::class, MyModel::class);

You can add callback as second argument, this way is totally same as share() and set():

$container->bind(ModelInterface::class, fn () => new MyObject());


Container allows you to extend an object, the new instance or closure will wrap the original one and you can do more extending configuration, this is a sample:

// Create an object first
$container->share('flower', function() {
    // Create an empty object
    return new Flower();

$container->extend('flower', function(Flower $flower, Container $container) {
    // Set a property to this object
    $flower->name = 'sakura';

    return $flower;

$flower = $container->get('flower');

$flower->name; // sakura

Calling Function

Container can execute any callable:

$result = $container->call($closure);

$result = $container->call([$object, 'method']);

$result = $container->call($invokalbeObject);

You can also add arguments:

$closure = function (Sakura $sakura, int $numbers = 3) {

// Add argument with name
$result = $container->call($closure, [
    'sakura' => new Sakura(),
    'numbers' => 5

// Add argument with class type, and ignore optional argument.
$result = $container->call($closure, [
    Sakura::class => new Sakura()

// Use Autowire
$result = $container->call($closure, [], Container::AUTO_WIRE);

Released under the MIT License.